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1. You must always use at least TWO references in your discussion answers (even for “reflection” type of questions or article reviews). To ensure that the learner is applying course and research materials, one of these references must be from the Cohen textbook.2. You also must have SEVERAL (three or more) citations in your work to show excellent integration of material into your answers.3. All discussion answers must be at least 500 words EACH in length (not including the posted questions or references). The 500-word count requirement only covers what you have written and is the absolute minimum to possibly earn an average grade. It is a great idea to do a word count on your work before submitting it. Always expand and expound the answer. Do not simply LIST items (like a laundry list). Also, be sure to answer each question in a comprehensive manner.First Discussionin your readings from the Psychological Testing and Assessment text, you were introduced to seven basic assumptions about psychological assessment. Identify the one assumption that was the most difficult for you to accept based on your current understanding or previous experiences with testing.Use your Psychological Testing and Assessment text to read the following:Chapter 1, “Psychological Testing and Assessment,” pages 1–35.
Chapter 2, “Historical, Cultural, and Legal/Ethical Considerations,” pages 36–74.
Pages 115–121 of Chapter 4, “Of Tests and Testing.”
In your post:Identify the assumption by number and title that presented the most questions for you. (Include the number and title in your subject line of the discussion thread when you post it.) Also, include an indicator about how concerning the assumption is to you at this time (that is, 0 = No concern at all, just the most problematic relative to all other assumptions I am presented; 1 = Somewhat concerned with this assumption; 2 = Very concerned with this assumption; 3 = Significantly concerned and in disagreement with this assumption).
Identify specific parts or elements of the assumption that were most concerning to you.
Analyze if the assumption elements identified are based on (a) your previous experiences, (b) others’ perspectives, (c) facts, or (d) a combination of these.
Discuss why these elements were most concerning to you in terms of those previous experiences, perspectives, or facts. Essentially, share an example of those experiences or knowledge that resulted in your current concern.
Identify which future chapter in the Psychological Testing and Assessment text may be important and relevant for you, based on the assumption you identified. (Hint: Look through the Table of Contents or Index in your text for help.)
Second Discussion in your Psychological Testing and Assessment text, and adhering to a fundamentalist view of measurement statistics, all possible attributes in psychology can be examined through at least one of these four scales and the creation of scores that purport to measure them.You also read about two methods for evaluating those scores by comparing them to a reference set of data; namely, norm-referenced testing and assessment, and criterion-referenced testing and assessment. Each of these methods is unique in the focus regarding a test’s scores or results.Discuss the impact of each scale of measurement on the ability or inability to be utilized on a test being standardized as a norm-referenced or criterion-referenced assessment. For the purpose of this discussion, you may cluster the ordinal and interval scale together. Subsequently, your post will include the following four elements:Ordinal or interval scale of measurement and norm-referenced test.
Ordinal or interval scale of measurement and criterion-referenced test.
Ratio scale of measurement and norm-referenced test.
Ratio scale of measurement and criterion-referenced test.
Use your Psychological Testing and Assessment text to read the following:Chapter 3, “A Statistics Refresher,” pages 75–114.
Pages 121–140 of Chapter 4, “Of Tests and Testing.”
Use the Internet to review the following:Joint Committee on Testing Practices. (2004). Code of fair testing practices in education [PDF]. http://www.apa.org/science/programs/testing/fair-t…Page 5.
Nitko, A. J. (n.d.). Using a Mental Measurements Yearbook review to evaluate a test. http://buros.org/using-mental-measurements-yearboo…
In your post:Provide at least one example that is not in your Psychological Testing and Assessment text for each combination above and describe how the referencing data would be collected.
Provide a statement that evaluates which scale of measurement appears to be the most useful for examining attributes in psychology. Explain.
Evaluate which method of referencing (norm or criterion) appears to be the most useful for examining attributes in psychology. Explain your decision based on the area of focus regarding the test results. For example, identify if it is preferable to focus on how one individual performs relative to others who took the same test, or if it is preferable to only focus on what the individual can or cannot do.
Third DiscussionIn your unit readings from the Psychological Testing and Assessment text, you read about three sources of error variance that occur in testing and assessment. These include test construction, test administration, and test scoring and interpretation. Additionally, other sources of error may be suspect. You were also introduced to reliability coefficients, which provide information about these sources of error variance on a test (see Table 5-4).The following reliability coefficients were obtained from studies on a new test, THING, purporting to measure a new construct (that is, Something). Alternate forms of the test were also developed and examined in subsequent studies published in the peer-reviewed journals. The alternate test forms were titled THING 1 and THING 2. (Remember to refer back to your Psychological Testing and Assessment text for information about using and interpreting a coefficient of reliability.)Internal consistency reliability coefficient = .92
Alternate forms reliability coefficient = .82
Test-retest reliability coefficient = .50
Use your Psychological Testing and Assessment text to read the following:Chapter 5, “Reliability,” pages 141–174.
In your post:Describe what these scores mean.
Interpret these results individually in terms of the information they provide on sources of error variance.
Synthesize all of these interpretations into a final evaluation about this test’s utility or usefulness.
Explain whether these data are acceptable.
Explain under what conditions they may not be acceptable and under what conditions, if any, they may be appropriate.
Fourth DiscussionIn your unit readings, you read about two approaches or models of validity—trinitarian and unitary. In some ways, these two models are competing views of gathering evidence for a test’s validity. In other ways, the two approaches have an overlap of elements.Use your Psychological Testing and Assessment text to read or review the following:Chapter 6, “Validity,” pages 175–199.
Information on norms on pages 125–139.
Information on measures of cognitive ability and productivity on pages 548–554.
In your post:Compare and contrast these two models in terms of how they conceptualize validity.
Identify at least one advantage and disadvantage of each model.
Decide which model appears to be the most valid for determining validity of a test.
Explain your decision in terms of the implications for decision making about a test’s validity.
Be sure to include citations from Guion’s 1980 article, “On Trinitarian Doctrines of Validity,” and Messick’s 1995 article, “Validity of Psychological Assessment: Validation of Inferences From Persons’ Responses and Performances As Scientific Inquiry Into Score Meaning.”Fifth DiscussionIn the unit readings from your Psychological Testing and Assessment text, you read about misconceptions regarding test bias and test fairness—two terms that are often incorrectly considered synonymous. While questions regarding test bias have been addressed through technical means, issues with test fairness are tied to values. The text attempts to define test fairness in a psychometric context and provides eight techniques for preventing or remedying adverse impact on one or another group (see page 209). One of these techniques included differential cutoffs. Furthermore, you were introduced to a variety of methods for setting cut scores. These methods have been based on either CTT or IRT.Use your Psychological Testing and Assessment text to read or review the following:Chapter 7, “Utility,” pages 200–228.
Chapter 8, “Test Development,” pages 229–272.
Information on validity, bias, and fairness on pages 192–199.
For this discussion, synthesize the information you learned about these two theories and respective methods. In your post:Determine which one is preferential for responding to questions about a test’s fairness.
Identify at least two advantages and two disadvantages in using each theory, citing appropriate American Educational Research Association (AERA) standards from your readings.
Defend your preference in terms of the methods used within each theory and how they apply to concepts of fairness across groups. Essentially, how does it best address test fairness?
Describe how advances in technology are improving the process of test development and inclusion of appropriate items.
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